What is Geology? Importance, Branches, and Career in India.

Geology is a science or art of studying of planet’s external and internal behaviours. In this post, you will learn about geology, their importance, how to make a career in it. 

I am sure that you will relate yourself with a geologist and you would know how can you make a career in geology. So stick till the end of this post to get more idea simply.

What is Geology? Importance, Branches, and Career.


What are Geology and its importance?

In Geology, we study the various aspects of planets such their external and internal behaviours, conditions, constituents, and as well as ongoing processes.

Do you know? somewhere we are all connected with earth science since we have come to this earth. All of the human’s experience has come from the experience of animals. For example, our modern eyes that had the first to come into a small living trilobite millions of years ago.

From the stone age to the modern age, somewhere, we all have utilized the resources of Nature. For example, the invention of the wheel, hunting of animals by sharp stones, uses of minerals like Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, etc, fossil fuel like coal, petroleum, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). From the tiny needle to the tallest building ‘the Burj Khalifa’, all things are connected with the geology.

Our social issues like the management of groundwater, Landslides, Earthquake, Tsunami, etc all of the things only can resolve with the precise knowledge of geology. Now you can imagine how much important this science is.

Branches of Geology

The branches of geology are very vast it contains more than 50 branches. Every branch of geology somehow is related to nature/environment, history, physics, and chemistry (fig).

All other science disciplines work as a tool for understanding. For example, the physical properties of the earth like density, gravity, magnetic fields, plate motions, viscosity, seismic wave velocity through layers, etc all are carried out with the help of physics.  The chemistry helps in finding out the chemical constituents of earth and other planets. Thus, physics with geology is known as geophysics, chemistry with geology as geochemistry, the economy with geology as economic geology, and engineering with geology as engineering geology and many more.

Who is a Geologist?

Every person somewhere is a geologist, how? Let me explain. In your village, you would see the groundwater extraction are pumped out by a few drilling processes. They don’t know geology but know how to extract them.

The second example is that there are so many water ponds have been built near temples. Why, have you ever think about it? The main reason behind it was reserving the rainwater and to recharge the groundwater zone. What is the reason behind the groundwater issues? The main reason is that every pond are filled with soil and the number of houses is being built over it. If groundwater zone does not get recharge how you can get water in the well. Our ancestors knew well about rainwater harvesting. They were good ancient geologist. Now, you would have understood who the geologist is and what he/she does.

Scientifically, a geologist is such a type of scientist who understands the planetary behaviour like climatic conditions, helps to carry out the natural resources so that all things could come to use in society, helps in the mitigation of natural hazards and to make planning for them, to help to give a proper idea about the foundation so that geotechnical structures could be built.

Thus, a geologist works in every sector like in the corporate offices, in the field, or in the research laboratories.

A career as a Geologist

Where can they work?

Do you want to be a geologist? Let us know about the sectors where geologist work. These sectors are Engineering, Science, Defense, Space, etc. In engineering sectors, they work in civil engineering, material and science engineering, mechanical engineering. In science, they work in the making of data structures, data modelling, physical chemistry, archaeology, etc. In space and defence, they use Remote Sensing techniques to recognize the physical and chemical properties like a magnetic field, geological processes, chemical constituent, water and mineral resource exploration. 

Job and Research sectors in India

In India, you may join in a government sector, public sector units (PSU), and private sectors like Geological Survey of India, Coal India Limited, Oil and Natural Gas Organization, Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, CSIR-CIMFR (Central Institute for Mining and Research), Cairn, Shell, Focus Energy Limited, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, and so on. They are the prestigious institutes for the geoscience where you may work as a geologist, petroleum engineer, exploration geologist, as a consultant, etc. 

Apart from it, if you want to make a career in research; then you can do a PhD. In India, the journey of a student in this field starts with a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Geology as an honour subject or as a major subject with other subsidiary subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc. After three years of graduation, they do Masters in Science (M.Sc.) where they study only at geology. In the case of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), you must qualify the few competitive examinations so that you could get the fellowship. These fellowships either may be a central and a state such as CSIR-NET, GATE, DST-fellowships, INSPIRE fellowships, etc (flow-chart of the Indian education system).

Business Startup with Geoscience

If you will open a startup in it, you may start with RemoteSensing, Exploration, and Area planning, own online shop for mineral and precious gemstones, as a consultant, mining, construction, etc. 

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